Factors affecting students’ intentions toward green entrepreneurship in COVID-19 pandemic times: A case study of Egyptian universities

(1) * Hamed A. Ead Mail (Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt)
(2) Ahmed Rashed Mail (Faculty of Commerce, Cairo University, Egypt)
(3) Waleed Ghoniem Mail (Faculty of Commerce, Cairo University, Egypt)
(4) Mohamed Turk Mail (Faculty of Commerce, Cairo University, Egypt)
*corresponding author


The impact of government assistance, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, conceptual development support, and educational development support on green entrepreneurial aspirations through university curriculum during the COVID-19 epidemic is explored in this research. It is the first of its kind in Egypt and is based on a sample population of 502 undergraduate students from various faculties at five Egyptian universities (two public, two private, and one institution with international cooperation). It employs structural equation modelling via SmartPLS. This study can assist other Egyptian universities in creating strategic plans for environmental initiatives and ensuring that students are given the necessary skills to succeed. The study aims to evaluate the impact of conceptual development support offered by universities in terms of fostering interest and presenting novel ideas to students to start a new project, government support provided in terms of laws and programs to encourage entrepreneurship, development of university curriculum to promote entrepreneurial self-efficacy through regular courses, postgraduate practices, and networking with entrepreneurs. Academics, especially those in universities in Egypt or other Arab or African nations, as well as policymakers, can gain from this research's potential to build new standards to support green entrepreneurship and sustainable economies.


entrepreneurial self-efficacy; green entrepreneurship intention; university curricula; COVID-19; sustainable economy; educational support; conceptual support; governmental support; Egyptian universities




Article metrics

10.31763/ijele.v4i2.716 Abstract views : 553 | PDF views : 135




Full Text



[1] M. Miller, “2019 Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) Data Repository: Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering,” Bull. Can. Map Libr. Arch., no. 164, pp. 47–51, 2020. doi: 10.15353/acmla.n164.1730

[2] E. Senay et al., “Improving Patient Outcomes in the Dual Crises of Climate Change and COVID-19: Proceedings of the Third Annual Clinical Climate Change Meeting, January 8, 2021,” Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, vol. 63, no. 11. LWW, pp. 813–818, 2021.doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000002345

[3] J. A. Yáñez, A. Afshar Jahanshahi, A. Alvarez-Risco, J. Li, and S. X. Zhang, “Anxiety, Distress, and Turnover Intention of Healthcare Workers in Peru by Their Distance to the Epicenter during the COVID-19 Crisis,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 1614–1620, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0800.

[4] X. Chen et al., “Belief in a COVID-19 Conspiracy Theory as a Predictor of Mental Health and Well-Being of Health Care Workers in Ecuador: Cross-Sectional Survey Study,” JMIR Public Heal. Surveill., vol. 6, no. 3, p. e20737, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.2196/20737.

[5] S. X. Zhang et al., “Succumbing to the COVID-19 Pandemic—Healthcare Workers Not Satisfied and Intend to Leave Their Jobs,” Int. J. Ment. Health Addict., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 956–965, Apr. 2022, doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00418-6.

[6] B. R. Román, S. Moscoso, S. A. Chung, B. L. Terceros, A. Álvarez-Risco, and J. A. Yáñez, “Treatment of COVID-19 in peru and bolivia, and self-medication risks,” Rev. Cuba. Farm., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 1–20, 2020. Available at: Google Scholar

[7] A. Alvarez-Risco et al., “Multitasking behavior in online classrooms and academic performance: case of university students in Ecuador during COVID-19 outbreak,” Interact. Technol. Smart Educ., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 422–434, Oct. 2021, doi: 10.1108/ITSE-08-2020-0160.

[8] T. Laing, “The economic impact of the Coronavirus 2019 (Covid-2019): Implications for the mining industry,” Extr. Ind. Soc., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 580–582, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.exis.2020.04.003.

[9] E. Liguori and C. Winkler, “From Offline to Online: Challenges and Opportunities for Entrepreneurship Education Following the COVID-19 Pandemic,” Entrep. Educ. Pedagog., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 346–351, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1177/2515127420916738.

[10] J. A. van Zanten and R. van Tulder, “Beyond COVID-19: Applying ‘SDG logics’ for resilient transformations,” J. Int. Bus. Policy, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 451–464, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1057/s42214-020-00076-4.

[11] L. M. Lamont, “Entrepreneurship, technology, and the university,” R&D Manag., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 119–123, Jun. 1972, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9310.1972.tb00977.x.

[12] G. E. Hills, “Variations in University entrepreneurship education: An empirical study of an evolving field,” J. Bus. Ventur., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 109–122, Mar. 1988, doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(88)90021-3.

[13] W. E. McMullan, W. A. Long, and J. B. Graham, “Assessing economic value added by university-based new-venture outreach programs,” J. Bus. Ventur., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 225–240, Mar. 1986, doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(86)90016-9.

[14] V. Ratten and P. Jones, “COVID-19 and entrepreneurship education: Implications for advancing research and practice,” Int. J. Manag. Educ., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–10, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.ijme.2020.100432.

[15] A. Godswill Agu, O. O. Okwara, E. R. Okocha, and N. O. Madichie, “COVID-19 pandemic and entrepreneurial intention among university students: a contextualisation of the Igbo Traditional Business School,” African J. Econ. Manag. Stud., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 89–104, Feb. 2022, doi: 10.1108/AJEMS-05-2021-0227.

[16] T. Hopkins and H. Feldman, “Changing Entrepreneurship Education: Finding the Right Entrepreneur for the Job,” J. Organ. Chang. Manag., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 28–40, Mar. 1989, doi: 10.1108/09534818910145066.

[17] R. Shawe, W. Horan, R. Moles, and B. O’Regan, “Mapping of sustainability policies and initiatives in higher education institutes,” Environ. Sci. Policy, vol. 99, pp. 80–88, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2019.04.015.

[18] R. Tamkivi, “Support Structures for Innovation and Research-Based Entrepreneurship in Estonia,” Ind. High. Educ., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 46–53, Feb. 1999, doi: 10.1177/095042229901300107.

[19] D. Watkins and G. Stone, “Entrepreneurship Education in UK HEIs,” Ind. High. Educ., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 382–389, Dec. 1999, doi: 10.5367/000000099101294726.

[20] M. Klofsten and D. Jones-Evans, “Comparing academic entrepreneurship in Europe–the case of Sweden and Ireland,” Small Bus. Econ., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 299–309, 2000, doi: 10.1023/A:1008184601282.

[21] M. Virtanen and M. Laukkanen, “Towards HEI-based new venture generation: the business lab of the University of Kuopio, Finland,” Ind. High. Educ., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 159–166, Jun. 2002, doi: 10.5367/000000002101296252.

[22] F. Campanella, M. R. Della Peruta, and M. Del Giudice, “The Role of Sociocultural Background on the Characteristics and the Financing of Youth Entrepreneurship. An Exploratory Study of University Graduates in Italy,” J. Knowl. Econ., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 244–259, Sep. 2013, doi: 10.1007/s13132-013-0157-4.

[23] H. Klandt and C. Volkmann, “Development and Prospects of Academic Entrepreneurship Education in Germany,” High. Educ. Eur., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 195–208, Jul. 2006, doi: 10.1080/03797720600940880.

[24] L. Edwards and E. J. Muir, “Promoting entrepreneurship at the University of Glamorgan through formal and informal learning,” J. Small Bus. Enterp. Dev., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 613–626, Dec. 2005, doi: 10.1108/14626000510628261.

[25] N. Karanassios, M. Pazarskis, K. Mitsopoulos, and P. Christodoulou, “EU strategies to encourage youth entrepreneurship: evidence from higher education in Greece,” Ind. High. Educ., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 43–50, Feb. 2006, doi: 10.5367/000000006776150747.

[26] A. Coduras, D. Urbano, Á. Rojas, and S. Martínez, “The Relationship Between University Support to Entrepreneurship with Entrepreneurial Activity in Spain: A Gem Data Based Analysis,” Int. Adv. Econ. Res., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 395–406, Nov. 2008, doi: 10.1007/s11294-008-9173-8.

[27] M. Raposo, A. do Paço, and J. Ferreira, “Entrepreneur’s profile: a taxonomy of attribu tes and motivations of university students,” J. Small Bus. Enterp. Dev., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 405–418, May 2008, doi: 10.1108/14626000810871763.

[28] T. Huu-Phuong and T. Soo-Jiuan, “Export Factoring: A Strategic Alternative for Small Exporters in Singapore,” Int. Small Bus. J. Res. Entrep., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 49–57, Apr. 1990, doi: 10.1177/026624269000800304.

[29] G. Menning, “Trust, entrepreneurship and development in Surat city, India,” Ethnos, vol. 62, no. 1–2, pp. 59–90, Jan. 1997, doi: 10.1080/00141844.1997.9981544.

[30] K. Suzuki, S.-H. Kim, and Z.-T. Bae, “Entrepreneurship in Japan and Silicon Valley: a comparative study,” Technovation, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 595–606, Oct. 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0166-4972(01)00099-2.

[31] K. H. Mok, “Fostering entrepreneurship: Changing role of government and higher education governance in Hong Kong,” Res. Policy, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 537–554, May 2005, doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2005.03.003.

[32] M. Yu Cheng, W. Sei Chan, and A. Mahmood, “The effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in Malaysia,” Educ. + Train., vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 555–566, Sep. 2009, doi: 10.1108/00400910910992754.

[33] C. Millman, H. Matlay, and F. Liu, “Entrepreneurship education in China: a case study approach,” J. Small Bus. Enterp. Dev., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 802–815, Oct. 2008, doi: 10.1108/14626000810917870.

[34] M. Jesselyn Co and B. Mitchell, “Entrepreneurship education in South Africa: a nationwide survey,” Educ. Train., vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 348–359, Jun. 2006, doi: 10.1108/00400910610677054.

[35] S. B. Owusu-Mintah, “Entrepreneurship education and job creation for tourism graduates in Ghana,” Educ. Train., vol. 56, no. 8/9, pp. 826–838, Nov. 2014, doi: 10.1108/ET-01-2014-0001.

[36] M. Olokundun et al., “Data article on the effectiveness of entrepreneurship curriculum contents on entrepreneurial interest and knowledge of Nigerian university students,” Data Br., vol. 18, pp. 60–65, Jun. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.03.011.

[37] J. Mitra, “Nurturing and sustaining entrepreneurship: University, Science Park, Business and Government Partnership in Australia,” Ind. High. Educ., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 183–190, Jun. 2000, doi: 10.5367/000000000101295039.

[38] J. J. Chrisman, T. Hynes, and S. Fraser, “Faculty entrepreneurship and economic development: The case of the University of Calgary,” J. Bus. Ventur., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 267–281, Jul. 1995, doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(95)00015-Z.

[39] D. D. Dill, “University-industry entrepreneurship: The organization and management of American university technology transfer units,” High. Educ., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 369–384, Jun. 1995, doi: 10.1007/BF01383958.

[40] A. Bernasconi, “University entrepreneurship in a developing country: The case of the P. Universidad Católica de Chile, 1985–2000,” High. Educ., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 247–274, Sep. 2005, doi: 10.1007/s10734-004-6353-1.

[41] S. Postigo and M. F. Tamborini, “Entrepreneurship Education in Argentina: The Case of the San Andres University,” in Business Education and Emerging Market Economies, Boston, MA: Springer US, 2004, pp. 267–282.doi: 10.1007/1-4020-8072-9_17

[42] I. Silajdžić, S. M. Kurtagić, and B. Vučijak, “Green entrepreneurship in transition economies: a case study of Bosnia and Herzegovina,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 88, pp. 376–384, Feb. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.07.004.

[43] M. J. Lynskey, “Bioentrepreneurship in Japan: Institutional transformation and the growth of bioventures,” J. Commer. Biotechnol., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 9–37, Oct. 2004, doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jcb.3040098.

[44] H. Bonnet, J. Quist, D. Hoogwater, J. Spaans, and C. Wehrmann, “Teaching sustainable entrepreneurship to engineering students: the case of Delft University of Technology,” Eur. J. Eng. Educ., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 155–167, May 2006, doi: 10.1080/03043790600566979.

[45] H. A. Ead and S. A. Fadlallah, “Education and culture is the proper entrance to Africa" green entrepreneurial education in Africa",” J. Int. Acad. Case Stud., vol. 27, pp. 1–10, 2021. Available at: Google Scholar

[46] M. Fishbein and I. Ajzen, “Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research,” Philos. Rhetor., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 177–188, 1977. Available at: Google Scholar

[47] S.-J. Yoo, S. Ryu, S. Kim, H. S. Han, and C. Moon, “Reference module in neuroscience and biobehavioral psychology.” Elsevier, 2017. Available at: Google Scholar

[48] A. Bandura, “Social foundations of thought and action,” in Englewood Cliffs, NJ, vol. 1986, no. 23–28, 1986. Available at: Google Scholar

[49] D. Miller, “The Correlates of Entrepreneurship in Three Types of Firms,” Manage. Sci., vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 770–791, Jul. 1983, doi: 10.1287/mnsc.29.7.770.

[50] G. T. Lumpkin and G. G. Dess, “Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct and Linking It To Performance,” Acad. Manag. Rev., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 135–172, Jan. 1996, doi: 10.5465/amr.1996.9602161568.

[51] D. Gibbs and K. O’Neill, “Building a green economy? Sustainability transitions in the UK building sector,” Geoforum, vol. 59, pp. 133–141, 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.12.004

[52] D. F. Pacheco, T. J. Dean, and D. S. Payne, “Escaping the green prison: Entrepreneurship and the creation of opportunities for sustainable development,” J. Bus. Ventur., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 464–480, Sep. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.07.006.

[53] K. O’Neill and D. Gibbs, “Rethinking green entrepreneurship–Fluid narratives of the green economy,” Environ. Plan. A Econ. Sp., vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1727–1749, 2016. doi: 10.1177/0308518X16650453

[54] B. Hwang and J. S. Tan, “Green building project management: obstacles and solutions for sustainable development,” Sustain. Dev., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 335–349, 2012. doi: 10.1002/sd.492

[55] S. A. Sunny and C. Shu, “Investments, incentives, and innovation: geographical clustering dynamics as drivers of sustainable entrepreneurship,” Small Bus. Econ., vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 905–927, Apr. 2019, doi: 10.1007/s11187-017-9941-z.

[56] Y. K. Demirel, M. Khorasanchi, O. Turan, A. Incecik, and M. P. Schultz, “A CFD model for the frictional resistance prediction of antifouling coatings,” Ocean Eng., vol. 89, pp. 21–31, Oct. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2014.07.017.

[57] G. Nulkar, “SMEs and environmental performance–A framework for green business strategies,” Procedia-Social Behav. Sci., vol. 133, pp. 130–140, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.177

[58] M. Khan, “Green” human resource management-a prerequisite for sustainable environment,” Prog. Sci. Eng. Res. J., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2015. Available at: Google Scholar

[59] M. Conner, “Theory of Planned Behavior,” in Handbook of Sport Psychology, Wiley, 2020, pp. 1–18. doi: 10.1002/9781119568124.ch1

[60] N. F. Krueger, M. D. Reilly, and A. L. Carsrud, “Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions,” J. Bus. Ventur., vol. 15, no. 5–6, pp. 411–432, Sep. 2000, doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00033-0.

[61] F. Farinelli, M. Bottini, S. Akkoyunlu, and P. Aerni, “Green entrepreneurship: the missing link towards a greener economy,” Atdf J., vol. 8, no. 3/4, pp. 42–48, 2011. Available at: Google Scholar

[62] M. Al-Shammari and R. Waleed, “Entrepreneurial intentions of private university students in the kingdom of Bahrain,” Int. J. Innov. Sci., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 43–57, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.1108/IJIS-06-2017-0058.

[63] D. Wegner, E. Thomas, E. K. Teixeira, and A. E. Maehler, “University entrepreneurial push strategy and students’ entrepreneurial intention,” Int. J. Entrep. Behav. Res., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 307–325, Nov. 2019, doi: 10.1108/IJEBR-10-2018-0648.

[64] R. Kumar and S. Shukla, “Creativity, Proactive Personality and Entrepreneurial Intentions: Examining the Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy,” Glob. Bus. Rev., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 101–118, Feb. 2022, doi: 10.1177/0972150919844395.

[65] J. Collis and R. Hussey, “A practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students.” Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2009. Available at: Google Scholar

[66] A. S. Rashed and D. M. Abd Elsamea, “The The Impact of Customer’s Perception of the Practices of Corporate Social Responsibility on Purchase Intention,” J. Accounting, Bus. Manag., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 83–103, 2021. doi: 10.31966/jabminternational.v28i2.473

[67] E. Fathi and A. S. Rashed, “Exploring the impact of mandatory audit firm rotation on audit quality: an empirical study,” Acad. Account. Financ. Stud. J., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1–18, 2021. Available at: Google Scholar

[68] W. Shehata and A. Rashed, “Accounting Conservatism, Information Asymmetry and Cash Holdings,” J. Accounting, Bus. Manag., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 63–72, 2021. doi: 10.31966/jabminternational.v28i1.826

[69] H. Rashed et al., “Generalized object detection on fisheye cameras for autonomous driving: Dataset, representations and baseline,” in Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision, 2021, pp. 2272–2280. doi: 10.1109/WACV48630.2021.00232

[70] J. F. Hair, M. C. Howard, and C. Nitzl, “Assessing measurement model quality in PLS-SEM using confirmatory composite analysis,” J. Bus. Res., vol. 109, pp. 101–110, Mar. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.11.069.

[71] W. C. Black, B. J. Babin, and R. E. Anderson, Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. Pearson, 2010. Available at: Google Scholar

[72] R. B. Kline, Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications, 2015. Available at: Google Scholar

[73] J. F. Hair, C. M. Ringle, and M. Sarstedt, “PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet,” J. Mark. theory Pract., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 139–152, 2011. doi: 10.2753/MTP1069-6679190202

[74] N. Mohamed and A. Rashed, “An Investigation of the Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Financial Performance in Egypt: The Mediating Role of Information Asymmetry,” J. Accounting, Bus. Manag., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 73–86, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.31966/jabminternational.v28i1.827.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Hamed A. Ead

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Education and Learning
ISSN 2684-9240
Published by Association for Scientific Computing Electronics and Engineering (ASCEE)
W : http://pubs2.ascee.org/index.php/ijele
E : zalik@ascee.org

View IJELE Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.