Self-Tuning PID Controller for Quadcopter using Fuzzy Logic

(1) A'dilah Baharuddin Mail (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)
(2) * Mohd Ariffanan Mohd Basri Mail (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)
*corresponding author


Tracking has become a necessary feature of a drone. This is due to the demand for drones, especially quadcopters, to be used for activities such as surveillance, monitoring, and filming. It is crucial to ensure the quadcopters perform the tracking with stable flight. Despite the advantages of having VTOL ability and great maneuverability, quadcopters require an effective controller to overcome their under-actuation and instability behavior. Even though a PID controller is commonly used and promising with its simple mechanism, it requires very proper tuning to ensure the stability of the system is not affected. In this paper, a simple Fuzzy algorithm is proposed to be incorporated into a PID controller to form a self-tuning Fuzzy PID controller. The Fuzzy logic controller works as the self-adjuster to the PID parameters. A mathematical model of the DJI Tello quadcopter is derived with position and attitude control loops that are designed to track a variety of trajectories with stable flight. The proposed method uses a simple architecture where the ranges of PID parameters are used as scaling factors for Fuzzy controller outputs. The results of the simulations show the tracking error performance metrics, which are IAE, ISE, and RMSE, are smaller compared to the values of the PID controller. Beyond its impact on quadcopter control, the proposed self-tuning approach holds promise for broader applications in nonlinear systems.


PID Controller; Fuzzy Logic; Quadcopter; Self-Tuning



Article metrics

10.31763/ijrcs.v3i4.1127 Abstract views : 1251 | PDF views : 438




Full Text



[1] S. A. H. Mohsan, M. A. Khan, F. Noor, I. Ullah, and M. H. Alsharif, “Towards the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): A Comprehensive Review,” Drones, vol. 6, no. 6, p. 147, 2022,

[2] F. Ahmed, J. C. Mohanta, A. Keshari, and P. S. Yadav, “Recent Advances in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: A Review,” Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 47, 2022,

[3] Rabab Benotsmane and József Vásárhelyi, “Towards Optimization of Energy Consumption of Tello Quad-Rotor with Mpc Model Implementation,” Energies, vol. 15, no. 23, pp. 9207–9207, 2022,

[4] S. A. Kouritem, M. Mahmoud, N. Nahas, M. Abouheaf, and A. M. Saleh, “A self-adjusting multi-objective control approach for quadrotors,” Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 76, pp. 543–556, 2023,

[5] S. Aggarwal and N. Kumar, “Path planning techniques for unmanned aerial vehicles: A review, solutions, and challenges,” Computer Communications, vol. 149, pp. 270–299, 2020,

[6] I. S. Leal, C. Abeykoon, and Y. S. Perera, “Design, Simulation, Analysis and Optimization of PID and Fuzzy Based Control Systems for a Quadcopter,” Electronics, vol. 10, no. 18, p. 2218, 2021,

[7] M. N. Shauqee, P. Rajendran, and N. Mohd Suhadis, “Quadrotor Controller Design Techniques and Applications Review,” INCAS Buletin, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 179–194, 2021,

[8] D. Li, “Fuzzy PID Controller to control the attitude of Quadrotor UAV,” Gyancity Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2020,

[9] H. Zhang and Q. Feng, "Design and Implementation of Attitude Control for Quadrotor UAV Based on Adaptive Fuzzy PID," 2022 41st Chinese Control Conference (CCC), pp. 3533-3538, 2022,

[10] A. Eltayeb, M. F. Rahmat, M. A. M. Eltoum, M. H. S. Ibrahim, and M. A. M. Basri, "Trajectory Tracking for the Quadcopter UAV utilizing Fuzzy PID Control Approach," 2020 International Conference on Computer, Control, Electrical, and Electronics Engineering (ICCCEEE), pp. 1-6, 2021,

[11] S. Musa, “Techniques for Quadcopter modeling and Design: A Review,” Journal of unmanned system technology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 66–75, 2018,

[12] A. K. Mohsin and J. A. Abdulhady, “Comparing dynamic model and flight control of plus and cross quadcopter configurations,” FME Transactions, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 683–692, 2022,

[13] M. Nakamura, K. Takaya, H. Ohta, K. Shibayama, and V. Kroumov, "Quadrotor Modeling and Simulation for Industrial Application," 2019 23rd International Conference on System Theory, Control and Computing (ICSTCC), pp. 37-42, 2019,

[14] T. Oktay and O. Köse, “Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Quadcopter for Several Flight Conditions,” Europan journal of science and technology, no. 15, pp. 132–142, 2019,

[15] B. Elbasueny, M. I. A. El-Sebah, and S. Shaaban, "Dynamic Modelling and Control of quadrotor's attitude around its hover position," 2019 6th International Conference on Advanced Control Circuits and Systems (ACCS) & 2019 5th International Conference on New Paradigms in Electronics & information Technology (PEIT), pp. 247-252, 2019,

[16] L. Zhou, A. Pljonkin, and P. K. Singh, “Modeling and PID control of quadrotor UAV based on machine learning,” Journal of Intelligent Systems, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 1112–1122, 2022,

[17] J. Rao, B. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Chen, and W. Giernacki, “Position Control of Quadrotor UAV Based on Cascade Fuzzy Neural Network,” Energies, vol. 15, no. 5, p. 1763, 2022,

[18] O. Bouaiss, R. Mechgoug and R. Ajgou, "Modeling, Control and Simulation of Quadrotor UAV," 2020 1st International Conference on Communications, Control Systems and Signal Processing (CCSSP), pp. 340-345, 2020,

[19] R. Kowalik, T. Łusiak, and A. Novak, “A Mathematical Model for Controlling a Quadrotor UAV,” Transactions on Aerospace Research, vol. 2021, no. 3, pp. 58–70, 2021,

[20] M. R. Kaplan, A. Eraslan, A. Beke, and T. Kumbasar, "Altitude and Position Control of Parrot Mambo Minidrone with PID and Fuzzy PID Controllers," 2019 11th International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ELECO), pp. 785-789, 2019,

[21] W. Giernacki, J. Rao, S. Sladic, A. Bondyra, M. Retinger and T. Espinoza-Fraire, "DJI Tello Quadrotor as a Platform for Research and Education in Mobile Robotics and Control Engineering," 2022 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), pp. 735-744, 2022,

[22] S. Zouaoui, E. Mohamed, and B. Kouider, “Easy Tracking of UAV Using PID Controller,” Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 171–177, 2018,

[23] N. S. Zuñiga-Peña, N. Hernández-Romero, J. C. Seck-Tuoh-Mora, J. Medina-Marin, and I. Barragan-Vite, “Improving 3D Path Tracking of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles through Optimization of Compensated PD and PID Controllers,” Applied Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 99, 2021,

[24] A. Iyer and H. O. Bansal, "Modelling, Simulation, and Implementation of PID Controller on Quadrotors," 2021 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI), pp. 1-7, 2021,

[25] A. Noordin, M. A. Mohd Basri, Z. Mohamed, and I. Mat Lazim, “Adaptive PID Controller Using Sliding Mode Control Approaches for Quadrotor UAV Attitude and Position Stabilization,” Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 963–981, 2020,

[26] A. T. Bayisa and G. Li-Hui, “Controlling quadcopter altitude using PID-control system,” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), vol. 8, pp. 195-199, 2019,

[27] M. Karahan and C. Kasnakoglu, "Modeling and Simulation of Quadrotor UAV Using PID Controller," 2019 11th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI), pp. 1-4, 2019,

[28] V. V. Patel, “Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Method,” Resonance, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1385–1397, 2020,

[29] S. M. Othman et al., “Position Tracking Performance with Fine Tune Ziegler-Nichols PID Controller for Electro-Hydraulic Actuator in Aerospace Vehicle Model,” Journal of physics, vol. 2107, no. 1, pp. 012064–012064, 2021,

[30] N. H. Sahrir and M. A. Mohd Basri, “Modelling and Manual Tuning PID Control of Quadcopter,” in Control, instrumentation and mechatronics: Theory and practice, pp. 346–357, 2022,

[31] M. Nassim and A. Abdelkader, “Speed Control of DC Motor Using Fuzzy PID Controller,” arXiv preprint arXiv:2108.05450, 2021,

[32] H. H. Manap, A. K. Abdul Wahab, and F. Mohamed Zuki, “Control for Carbon Dioxide Exchange Process in a Membrane Oxygenator Using Online Self-Tuning Fuzzy-PID Controller,” Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, vol. 64, p. 102300, 2021,

[33] L. Farah, A. Haddouche, and A. Haddouche, “Comparison between proposed fuzzy logic and ANFIS for MPPT control for photovoltaic system,” International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS), vol. 11, no. 2, p. 1065, 2020,

[34] Y. Di and Z. Chen, “Discussion on tuning method of quantization factor of fuzzy PID controller,” Journal of physics, vol. 2232, no. 1, pp. 012007–012007, 2022,

[35] S. S. Kumar and G. Anitha, “A Novel Self-Tuning Fuzzy Logic-Based PID Controllers for Two-Axis Gimbal Stabilization in a Missile Seeker,” International Journal of Aerospace Engineering, vol. 2021, pp. 1–12, 2021,

[36] R. Baz, K. E. Majdoub, F. Giri, and A. Taouni, “Self-tuning fuzzy PID speed controller for quarter electric vehicle driven by In-wheel BLDC motor and Pacejka’s tire model,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 598–603, 2022,

[37] E. Güçlü, İ. Aydın, and E. Akın, "Fuzzy PID Based Autonomous UAV Design for Railway Tracking," 2021 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT), pp. 456-461, 2021,

[38] D. Nimawat and N. Nagar, “Self-Tuning Fuzzy Pid Controllers Application on Industrial Hydraulic Actuator Using Unique System Identification Approach,” Journal of Communications Technology, Electronics and Computer Science, vol. 22, pp. 1–6, 2019,

[39] M. Rabah, A. Rohan, Y.-J. Han, and S.-H. Kim, “Design of Fuzzy-PID Controller for Quadcopter Trajectory-Tracking,” International Journal of Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Systems, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 204–213, 2018,

[40] R. Kristiyono and W. Wiyono, “Autotuning Fuzzy PID Controller for Speed Control of BLDC Motor,” Journal of Robotics and Control (JRC), vol. 2, no. 5, 2021,

[41] K. Ilija, V. Čongradac, and F. Kulic, “A novel fuzzy logic scheme for PID controller auto-tuning,” Automatika, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 365–377, 2022,


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 A'dilah Baharuddin, Mohd Ariffanan Mohd Basri

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


About the JournalJournal PoliciesAuthor Information

International Journal of Robotics and Control Systems
e-ISSN: 2775-2658
Organized by: Association for Scientific Computing Electronics and Engineering (ASCEE)Peneliti Teknologi Teknik IndonesiaDepartment of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan and Kuliah Teknik Elektro
Published by: Association for Scientific Computing Electronics and Engineering (ASCEE)
Office: Jalan Janti, Karangjambe 130B, Banguntapan, Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia